Tutorials Hut

Tutorials Hut

  • Unix For Testers

       Introduction to Unix
       Unix System Architecture
       Unix File System Structure
       Absolute and Relative Path
       Basic Unix Commands
       cal command in Unix
       who command in Unix
       date command in Unix
       clear command in Unix
       more command in Unix
       whoami command in Unix
       uname command in Unix
       man command in Unix
       echo command in Unix
       Unix File System Commands
       ls command in Unix
       cat command in Unix
       cp command in Unix
       mv command in Unix
       pwd command in Unix
       cd command in Unix
       mkdir command in Unix
       rmdir command in Unix
       rm command in Unix
       touch command in Unix
       dirname command in Unix
       tar command in Unix
       Unix Links(ln)
       Hard Link
       Soft Link
       Regular Expressions
        Basic Regular Expressions
       Interval Regular Expressions
       Pipes and Filters
       Unix Text Processing Commands
       cmp command in Unix
       diff command in Unix
       comm command in Unix
       cut command in Unix
       Paste command in Unix
       head command in Unix
       tail command in Unix
       wc command in Unix
       sort command in Unix
       grep command in Unix
       Process Related Command
       top command in Unix
       ps command in Unix
       nice command in Unix
       Kill command in Unix
       nohup command in Unix
       time command in Unix
       File Tranfer Commands in Unix
       file transfer using scp command
       file transfer using rlogin command
       file transfer using telnet command
       ssh(Secure Shell) command in Unix
       ftp file transfer command
       sftp file transfer command
       chmod command in Unix
       File Permission and File Security in Unix



  • Unix Introduction: Definition,features,Types of Unix, Server installation

    UNIX is an operating system which was first developed in the 1960s. This article will present you with a complete idea about definition, features, types and process to download .

    We will learn below topics in this article:

    What is Unix?

     Operating system is a suite of programs which make the computer work.It is a stable, multi-user*, multi-tasking* suite of programs which makes the computer work.This tutorial is aimed to help testers/beginners with unix commands commonly used while testing. 

    MultiUser :Multiple users access the system by connecting to points known as terminals.
    MultiTasking :Several users can run multiple programs or processes simultaneously on one system, there can be a simultaneous background process working too

    The Unix operating system is a set of programs that act as a link between the computer and the user.

    Major components of Unix System architecture are :

          • Kernel  : Kernel is the central core that interacts directly with the hardware of the system.
          • Shell : It is the interface between the user and the kernel. Users can interact with the shell using shell commands.
          • Commands and Utilities: Commands used by the operating system
          • User Applications : All the data/programs which the user writes.

    We will discuss about in the next section  System Architecture

    Unix architecture

    Types of Unix

    There are many different versions available which share common similarities.

    The most popular types are:

        1. Sun Solaris
        2. BSDI
        3. SCO
        4. HP-UX
        5. NetBSD Project
        6. SGI Irix
        7. IBM AIX
        8. GNU/Linux

    Features of Unix OS

    Features Explanation
    Portability

    It is the ability of a piece of software to move easily from one hardware platform to another.

    UNIX uses a high-level language that is easy to comprehend, modify and transfer to other machines

    Security Basic security features include password protection, access permission, user profiles, shell script and file ownership.
    MultiUserMultiple users access the system by connecting to points known as terminals.
    MultiTaskingSeveral users can run multiple programs or processes simultaneously on one system, there can be a simultaneous background process working too
    Hierarchical File SystemUses a hierarchical file structure to store information. This structure has the maximum flexibility in grouping information in a way that reflects its natural state. It allows for easy maintenance and efficient implementation.
    Pipes and FilterUNIX has facilities called Pipes and Filters which permit the user to create complex programs from simple programs.
    ShellHas a simple user interface called the shell that has the power to provide the services that the user wants. It protects the user from having to know the internal hardware details.It provides powerful command line interface
    CommunicationRequests and commands given by the user are carried out by the kernel and shell together.
    Stable and ReliableHighly stable and reliable system.
    Software Development ToolsUNIX offers an excellent variety of tools for software development for all phases, from program editing to maintenance of software.

    Logging into an UNIX server

    The standard way for logging to a UNIX server is through using a Secure SHell (SSH) client. PuTTY is a free SSH client available.

    Steps To install and use PuTTY:

      1. Download PuTTY from here.
      2. Install using the default settings on your computer.
      3. Double-click the PuTTY icon
      4. Enter the UNIX/Linux server hostname in the ‘Host Name’ box, and press the ‘Open’ button at the bottom of the dialog box.
      5. Enter your username and password when prompted.

    Transferring files to and from a UNIX server is through using a ssh-enabled ftp client (SFTP).
    Two free SFTP clients available for MS Windows computers
    1. FileZilla
    2. WinSCP.

    FileZilla
    To install FileZilla:

      1. Download FileZilla client for Windows from here.
      2. Install using the default settings on your computer.
      3. Double-click the FileZilla icon.
      4. To use FileZilla, fill in the fields for the host,username on that host,password, and the port (use 22 for SFTP). Click Return.
      5. Two file browser windows open, the browser on the left is on your computer, the browser on the right is from the UNIX host .
      6. Transfer files by dragging them from one computer to the other with your mouse.

    Steps to install WinSCP:

      1. Download WinSCP installation package from here.
      2. Install using the default settings on your computer.
      3. Double-click the WinSCP icon.
      4. To use WinSCP, fill in the fields for the host name ,username , password. Click return.
      5. Two file browser windows open up, the one on the left is on your computer, and the one on the right is from the host .
      6. Transfer files by dragging them from one computer to the other with your mouse.

    For Structure refer:

      1. Unix System Architecture
      2. Unix File System Structure
     
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