Severity and priority in Software Testing
In the Defect Tracking system Priority and Severity are used to share the importance of a bug among the team and to fix it accordingly. Helps to prioritize defects and decide which defects should be fixed first.
- The degree of impact that a defect has on the development or operation of a component or system.
- Severity defines how severe will be the impact of a defect on the performance of the system.
- Defect Severity is one of the most common causes of disputes between Testers and Developers.
- Severity means how severe it is affecting the functionality or the user’s ability to use the system.
- Severity is associated with standards.
- The Test Engineer can decide the severity level of the bug.
- Based on Bug Severity the product fixes are done.
Severity is usually classified into four levels, ranging from high to low.
S1 – Critical severity defect :Not able to test application further. (Show stopper). It causes the system to crash or results in data loss.
For example, if a banking application allows a user to access another user’s account, it is considered a critical defect.
S2 – Major severity defect :Major functionality not working but able to test application.
For example, if a customer is charged the wrong amount for a product or service, it is considered a high severity defect.
S3 – Minor severity defect :Bug in Functionality but in the sub module or one under the other module. It causes minor functionality to fail or results in minor incorrect results.
For example, if the login page of an application takes longer than usual to load, it is considered a medium severity defect.
S4 – Trivial severity defect : Issues in location of the object or the look and feel issue (Cosmetic).
For example, if the color of the text on a page is not as expected.
- Priority means how fast it has to be fixed.
- Product manager is to decide the Priority to fix a bug
- Priority means how urgently the issue can be fixed.
- Priority status is set based on the customer requirements
- Priority actually tells the developer the order in which defects should be resolved.
P1 – High priority defect : Immediate attention and should be resolved as soon as possible.
For example, a critical defect that causes the system to crash or results in data loss , causes major functionality to fail is considered an immediate priority.
P2 – Medium priority defect : should be resolved soon after the defects with higher priority have been resolved.
For example, a medium severity defect that causes minor functionality to fail or results in minor incorrect results is considered a medium priority defect.
P3 – Low priority defect : does not require immediate attention and should be rectified after the defects with higher priority have been resolved.
For example, a low severity defect that causes cosmetic or user interface issues is considered a low priority defect.
Deferred defect : A defect is considered deferred if it is not important or not critical and can be deferred to a later release or deployment. For example, a trivial defect that does not have any impact on the system or the user’s ability to use the system is considered a deferred defect.
High priority and High severity
- Basic functionality of the system is affected and user is blocked as user is unable to use this application
- Such defects should be rectified immediately.
High priority and Low severity
- For example Spelling mistake in the company’s name or issues with logo.
- Such defects are of low severity
- But these needs to be fixed immediately and should be considered as high priority defect.
Low priority and High Severity
- Major defect in some module but user would not be using it immediately
- This can be fixed later
Low priority and Low severity
- Generally cosmetic in nature
- Doesn’t affect the functionality of the system
- Can be fixed later
Severity and Priority are two important concepts in software testing that help to prioritize defects and decide which defects should be fixed first. Severity is the degree of impact that a defect has on the system or the user’s ability to use the system, while Priority is the degree of urgency with which a defect needs to be fixed. By using Severity and Priority, software development teams can ensure that defects are fixed in a timely and efficient manner, resulting in a high-quality software product.